What is operating system (OS)

What is operating system (OS)

Just as we humans have a heart, a computer also has a heart, and in technical language, it is called the operating system (OS) of a computer.

Whenever you use Mobile or computer, you always keep saying Android, Windows, Mac, Linux, etc. so all these names are of an operating system. Sometimes Android KitKat, sometimes Android Oreo, or if Windows is talked about, someone speaks windows 10, windows 8, windows 7, Windows XP, etc. The same happens in Mac OS.

What is operating system?

Operating system is also called system software. Most people by it is also called the heart of a computer. Operating system is system software, which works like interface between you and the computer hardware.

I explain this sentence directly, whenever you burn a computer, then this OS gives you the means to use the computer. As you listen to a song, double click on a word document, sit down with three windows, write some keywords, and save some files on the computer, you can never do all this without operating system.

This OS helps in victimization hardware likewise. The Operating system mainly does the same thing as takes some input from the keyboard, processes the instruction, and sends the output to the computer screen.

You see this operating system only when you turn on the computer and when you turn off the computer. you live like Game, MS word, Adobe Reader, VLC Media player, Photoshop, and inside a lot of software computer. To run these, you need a program or big software which we call the Operating system.

The Name of the OS utilized in mobile is a robot, which is thought by everybody. You must know what is the Operating system, so let’s know about some of its work.

Function of Operating system

By the way, the computer does a lot of work, but first when you turn on the computer, then the operating system first loads in Main Memory means RAM and after that this User software allocate all the hardware it needs Below are the different functions of OS, know more about them in detail.

  1. Memory Management
  2. Processor management (Process scheduling)
  3. Device Management
  4. File Management
  5. Security
  6. see system Performance
  7. Error reporting
  8. Creating synergy between software and

Memory Management

Memory Management means managing Primary and Secondary Memory. Main memory means RAM is bytes of a very large Array.

Meaning there square measure heaps of tiny blocks in memory wherever we are able to store some information. wherever there’s associate degree address of every slot. Main Memory is that the quickest running memory that mainframe Direct uses. Because of all the programs that run the CPU are in main memory only.

The Operating system does all this work.

  • Which memory of main memory will be used, which will not be, how much will be, how much will not be.
  • In multiprocessing, the OS decides which process will be given memory and how much will be given.
  • when OS asks for process Memory then Memory OS gives it to it (Process means a task that is done inside the computer).
  • when the method finishes its work, the OS takes back its memory.

Processor Management (Process Scheduling)

when it comes to a multiprogramming environment, the OS decides which process which process will get Processor and which will not be available and for how long. This process is called process scheduling. The operating system makes all this work.

  • The Operating system also looks at whether the processor is empty or doing some work, or is free and whether the process has finished its work or not. if you wish, you’ll see within the Task Manager several what percentage what number jobs square measure occurring and the way many aren’t The program that has a program that has done all this work is called Traffic controller.
  • CPU apportion the method.
  • when the work of a method is over, it puts the processor in different work, and if nothing is finished, free the Processor.

Device Management

If you use a driver on your computer, then you would know that such as sound driver, Bluetooth Driver, Graphics Driver, WiFi Driver, but it helps to run different input / Output Devices, but these drivers OS runs.

So let’s see what this OS does.

  • Tracks all computer devices and the name of the program that makes this task is the I/O controller.
  • just as totally different processes would like devices to try and do some task, the OS conjointly will the work of device apportion. Take an example, a process has to perform some tasks like playing video, not removing the print, then both these tasks will be done with the help of Output devices Monitor, printer. thus once each of those devices has to be compelled to deliver the method, it works by the OS.
  • when the method is over, it deallocates the device back.

File Management

Organizing all the directories very much in one file. Because with this we can easily find the data. thus let’s recognize what’s the operate of OS in File Management.

  • Organizes information, location, and status. It sees all file systems.
  • who will get which resource
  • Resource De-allocate.


When you turn on your computer, you ask that password, this means that the OS prevents your system from Unauthenticated Access. This keeps your computer safe. And some programs cannot be opened without a password.

See system Performance

It looks at the performance of the computer and improves the system. The OS records however long it takes to deliver a service.

Error reporting

If there are a lot of errors in the system, then the OS detects and recovers them.

Creating synergy between software and user

  • Task assigns compiler, interpreter and assembler. connects totally different computer codes to the user, which makes the user use the computer code higher.
  • It provides communications between the user and the system.
  • The operating system is stored in the BIOS. The rest also makes the application user-friendly.

Characteristics of operating system

  • An operating system could be an assortment of the many programs, that run alternative programs.
  • It controls all the Input/Output Devices.
  • The os is to blame for running all the application software.
  • Process scheduling means allocating and deallocate processes.
  • Informs you concerning the errors and threats happening within the system.
  • Establishes smart synergism between User and computer programs.

By currently you want to all grasp what the software system will (Function of Operating system), thus allow us to currently shrewdness many sorts of OS area units there.

Types of Operating system

Day turning every day Technology and everything with it is changing the way using the Operating System Every Field of railways, Research, Satellite, Industry Know the Operating system types are growing.

  1. Batch operating system
  2. Simple Batch Operating System
  3. Multiprogramming Batch Operating System
  4. Network Operating System
  5. Multiprocessor Operating system
  6. Distributed Operating system
  7. Time-sharing Operating system
  8. Real-Time operating system

1. Batch Processing Operating system

Batch processing operating systems were introduced to get rid of the issues of the sooner era. If we talk about an earlier system, then it used to take more setup time At the same time this much setup time has been reduced in this batch processing system where jobs are processed in batches. This type of operating system is called a batch processing operating system.

Any similar jobs in its area unit submitted to the CPU for processing and that the area unit runs at the same time. the most performed of the Batch Processing System is to execute the roles mechanically in a very batch. The most important work that is done in this work is ‘Batch Monitor’ that is found within the low finish of the most memorable.

2. Simple Batch operating system

This is the oldest system during which there was no direct interaction between the user and therefore the computer. during this system, the user had to bring a storage unit to method the task or job and had to submit it to the computer operator.

In this, all the roles got to the computer in a batch or line. within a few days or a few months, it was a job process and an output store. this method accustomed method jobs in batch, thus its name was conjointly referred to as batch mode operating system.

3. Multiprogramming Batch operating system

In this operating system, a job was raised too much from memory and it is executed too much. the OS that processes employment, if identical job needs I/O, then the OS offers the second job to the CPU and therefore the 1st one gets the I/O, owing to this the CPU is always busy.

The number of jobs that stay in memory is usually but the number of jobs that area unit within the disk. If a lot of jobs remain in the line then the operating system decides which job will be processed 1st. The CPU in this OS never remains idle.

The time-sharing system is also a part of a Multiprogramming system. Response time-sharing system but CPU usage is more in multiprogramming.


  • No direct interaction between user and computer.
  • The job that comes first is the first process, so the user had to wait for more.

4. Network Operating system

Its abbreviation is NOS, the complete style of NOS is ‘Network Operating System’. This network operating system provides its services to computers that area unit connected to a network.

If they are given an example, then they come in shared file access, shared applications, shared applications, and printing capabilities.

NOS is a type of software that allows multiple computers to communicate simultaneously, share files, and also to other hardware devices.

Earlier Microsoft Windows and Apple operating systems weren’t designed for single computer usage and network usage. however as computer networks started growing slowly and their usage conjointly began to grow, and such operating systems also started developing.

There are mainly two types of NOS:- 1. Peer-to-peer (p2p) OS, which is installed on each computer. The second one is a client-server model, in which there is a machine server and another 2. client software is installed.

Types of network operating systems

Talking concerning the kind of Network operating system, there are mainly two basic types, peer-to-peer NOS and client/server NOS:

1. Peer-to-peer network operating systems

PTPNOS allows users to share network resources that are saved in a common, accessible network location. during this design, all devices are treated equally in step with practicality.

Peer-to-peer works best in small to medium LANs, also as setting them up is incredibly low-cost.

2. Client/server network operating system

provide users with access to any or all resources through a server. In its architecture, all functions and applications are fields under a file server, which can be executed by individual client actions, why it should not be in any physical location.

Installing the client/server is incredibly tough, whereas it needs an outsized quantity of technical maintenance. Moreover, it also costs more.

Its biggest advantage is that the network is centrally controlled in its order that any amendment are often created simply, whereas further technology can even be incorporated.

we can show a network operating system on the basic OS that runs a network device, such as a router or firewall.

5. Multiprocessor operating system

All the processors utilized the multiprocessor system uses a standard physical memory. computing power is incredibly quick. All of these processors work under an operating system. Here are some of its Advantages.


  • Very high speed because Multiprocessor is used.
  • If there are tons of tasks along, the system throughput increases here. which means, how many job processes can be done in a second.
  • In this OS, Task is divided into sub Task, and each subtask is assigned to different Processor, especially this is why a Task is completed in a very short time.

6. Distributed operating system

The only purpose of using a distributed operating system is that the world has a powerful OS and Microprocessor has become very cheap, as well as communication technology is improving.

Due to this advancement, Distributed OS was currently created, that is incredibly low cost and keeps the remote computer through the network. that in itself may be massive action.


  • All the resources that are remote will be simply used, that resources aren’t empty.
  • They are processing fast.
  • The load is a smaller amount on the host machine as a result of the load is additional distributed.

7. Time-Sharing Operating system

In this, your time is provided by the OS to finish every task properly, in order that every task will be completed properly. At a similar time, each user uses one system is additionally referred to as a Multitasking system.

At a similar time, no matter task is in it will be either from one user or it will be from multi-user as well.

The amount of your time it tasks to finish every task is called quantum. At the same time, after completing each task, the OS then starts the next task.


Letus know about the advantages of the time-sharing operating system.

  • In this, the OS is given civil rights to finish every task.
  • It is tasking to own duplicasy of software in it. that is adequate to none.
  • CPU idle time will be reduced simply.


Let us realize the disadvantages of time-sharing operating system.

  • The issue of dependability is seen addtional during this.
  • It takes care of the safety and integrity of everything.
  • The issue of data communication is a common problem in this.

Examples of time-sharing, operating system are:- Unix

8. Real-Time operating system

This is the foremost Advance operating system, that performs a real-time process. This means that while leaving Missile, Railway Ticket Booking, Satelite, if all of these things were delayed even for a second, then this operating system does not remain idle at all.

There are two types of these, 1. Hard real-time operating system, 2. soft real-time.

1. Hard Real-Time operating system

This is the operating system, among which period is given longer to finish the task.

2. Soft Real-Time

In Soft Real-Time, the restriction of time is a little less, what happens in it if one Task is running and another Task is launched at the same time, the first priority is given to the new Task. This was some data regarding varieties of operating systems. Before this, you have got come back to grasp what’s the operating system

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