Cold War. Arenas of the cold war and causes,
What is Cold-War?
Cold War is a state of tension between nations in which each nation makes itself powerful and the other weak. Furious and soft plays all kinds of diplomatic tactics to create.
Cold War United States and The Soviet Union had a situation in which both sides, despite having peaceful diplomatic relations, had mutual hostility and arms used to constantly try to weaken each other with all other measures except war.
The term ‘Cold War’ was first used by the American politician, Bernard Baruch, and pro. Lipman promoted it. Joseph Frankel defining the Cold War Frankel has said, cold-war may be regarded as a sparring match between two giant states as a succession of moves and counter moves.
K. P.S. In the words of K. P.S Menon, “The Cold War as experienced by the world is two conflicts between ideologies, two systems, two factions, two states, and two individuals when he was at his peak.
was There were two ideologies-capitalism and communism, there were two systems – bourgeois democracy and proletarian dictatorship, two There were factions – NATO and Versa Pact, two states – the United States and the Soviet Union, two individuals – john Faster Dalles and Joseph Stalin.”
in the second world war, the allies led by the United States, the Soviet Union, Britain, and France had Germany, Italy And Defeated the Japan-led axis nation. This war in Hiroshima And Nagasaki cites Japan, respectively, August 6 And ended on 9 August 1945 after the dropping of Anubham by the US.
The secret names of these bombs Little Boy and Fatman were. Critics believe that the US dropped these bombs intentionally. Were when Japan was about to surrender. America intended to stop the Soviet Union’s entry into Asia and other regions.
And it was also to show that the United States is more powerful than the Soviet Union. American supporters argued. That it was necessary to bring down Anubham in order to stop the war immediately and prevent further casualties of fellow nations.
Behind this whatever the purpose, the Second World War devastated Italy, Germany, and Japan and weakened the great powers of Europe. had given.
The United States and the Soviet Union emerged as two superpowers worlds were able to influence the events occurring in any part of the country. Both rise as rivals to each other. happened. After the Soviet Union attained nuclear weapons to destroy each other.
Containing in such a situation neither of them wanted to take the risk of direct war. so both superpowers The hostile tension between the two remained cold.
The invention of nuclear and nuclear bombs prevented direct warfare. if nuclear war was inevitable So it was impossible for either party to declare itself the winner. Despite provoking each other, no country Did not want political supremacy at the cost of destroying.
if a superpower attacks another superpower Even if it destroyed nuclear weapons, it would have had nuclear weapons worth destroying the attacker. Deterrence prevented war between the two superpowers, not hostility or mutual rivalry.
When the two parties both have so much ability to compete against each other and harm each other. The side does not want to take the risk of war. This is called the logic of Deterrence.
Causes of the Cold War
The Cold War was characterized by intense ideological differences between the Soviet Union, and hostility towards each other and There was a reward of mistrust. Its rise was mainly due to the following:
1. Ideological differences – In the Second world war, the Soviet Union fought on behalf of the Allies against the Axis nations. But at the end of the War, the differences between the US and Britain of the Soviet Union Become clear. Capitalist western country And the mutual differences of the Soviet Union were fundamental and historical.
Capitalist since the Bolshevik Revolution of 1917 western countries were against the Soviet Union. He made every effort to end the Bolshevik revolution but failed At that time, he tried to provoke Hitler against the Soviet Union.
But after coming to power, Hitler when they started invading the nations, were forced to befriend the Soviet Union. so of the war, The friendship of the western nations with the Soviet Union at the time was based on circumstantial and selfishness that persisted after the end of the war.
Could not live Due to the ideological differences between the capitalist governance system and the socialist system of governance, the capitalists in the world The country with a democratic system, America and the country with the socialist system under different leadership of soviet Union. Two factions of different countries formed and tensions between the two led to the cold war.
2. Differences related to establishing dominion over the conquered territories – The territories won by the Axis nation in the second world war. But both groups wanted to establish thier dominance so that they would join their group if they become independent.
German territories Support of different groups to both parties in the freedom struggle, support to the fascist party in Italy by the west, Britain in Yunnan The examples of the support of the Rajapaksa against communism are examples of this.
3. Russia violating Yalta Conference decisions- It was decided in the Yalta conference of 1945 that The states freed from the Nazis (Germany) will choose the political system as they wish and for this, among the Allies, A joint discussion will be held.
But after the war, the Soviet Union communist regime in all Eastern European countries was successful in establishing. The US and Britain accused the Soviet Union of being imperialist and its Told this work against the decisions of the Yalta conference.
4. Russia does not withdraw its forces from Iran- Anglo- American forces from southern world war two and southern Iran and the soviet army captured northern Iran and the question of withdrawal of foreign forces from Iran arose after the war Anglo-American forces were withdrawn from southern Iran, But Russian forces remained as they were in northern Iran.
world opinion though And due to the united nations, Russia withdrew its Army after a long time but the soviet union among the western nations cold war pace the suspicions of the destiny become even greater.
5. Soviet pressure on turkey a Greece- Immediately After the war, the Soviet union over turkey occupied some territory a2 base force started pushing for the right to build a naval base but western nations were against it. when on turkey when Russia’s interference started increasing, the US warned him that no inventions of Turkey would be tolerated.
similarly, the soviet union occupied most of the territory north of Greece before Germany surrender. Had taken and stables communist regime there. western nations also opposed this. like this difference between then incrase.
6. Excessive use of prohibition by the Soviet Union in the United Nations Treaty– Soviet Union prohibited its prohibition Started obstructing the work of the United Nations by excessive use of. He forced America on the strength of prohibition And adopted a policy of repealing almost every resolution of other Western countries. This severely criticized the Western nation Started creating an atmosphere of protest and tension in them.
7. Anti-American propaganda campaign by the Soviet Union- shortly before the end of the war, the major Soviet Critical articles against American policies began to be published in newspapers and magazines. America with this promotional campaign There was a big reaction in the government sectors of the US and the United States on its growing communist activities Began to curb. He created a bogey of communism.
the soviet Union Considered this action of America against himself and he also started a campaign of harsh criticism of America. Gave started with various defeated nations after the Bharrod-war to start.
8. Soviet Union initiated peace negotiations:- with various defeated nations after the war. Even among the peacekeepers, the Soviet Union began to submit demands to suit their selfishness and against the interests of Western nations done. This led to problems of peace rather than solving.
9. Anti-Western actions of the Soviet Union:- Undue advantage of compensation provision After destroying German industries, it started transferring its valuable machines to Russia.
As well as Germany Gave. In violation of the London Protocol, Berlin was blocked. All between West Germany and East Germany stopped the traffic. His activities deteriorated his relations with Western nations.
10. Second front question:- when Germany invaded Russia and exerted its full power in the question-war of the second Front, The army penetrated into the Soviet territory very deep, then with the aim of dividing their power into two parts, the Soviet Prime Minister Stalin meets British Prime Minister Churchill and US President Roosevelt against Prime Minister Churchill and US President Roosevelt against Germany in Western Europe Requested to open the front.
But Roosevelt and Churchill ignored this proposal for the resulting Rhe Soviet Union had to suffer a considerable loss of public money. western Nations second in Europe against Germany at western Border By opening the front, the Soviet Union could reduce this loss. Due to thier dealy, the Soviet Union Disbeliveved towards the Allies.
11. The US to keep secret from soviet Union- US invented Anubam was kept a secret from the Soviet Union while Britain and Canada were aware of it. when Hiroshima and Nagasaki of japan But after the US dropped the bomb, Russia came to know that America has an atom bomb.
The secret of Anubham Russia considered this to be a betrayal. Tension arose between the two countries and both were secretly scientific Started competing with the invention of weapons. Russia discovered Anubam four years after the end of the war.
12. Prohibition on giving land-lease assistance to the Soviet Union- President Truman discontinued this aid after victory in the war, which was dissatisfied with the Soviet support for the Soviet Union under the Land-Lease Act. This led to bitterness between these two.
13. Anti-soviet propaganda campaign by the west- British Prime Minister Churchill did the US President Truman In attendance, in his Fulton speech on March 5, 1946, indicated a new policy of opposition to communism and the soviet criticized the union. Prior to this, on September 20, 1945, President and then Commerce Secretary Henry A Wallace Asked for his resignation because he had given a public speech in New York on September 12, 1945, to Soviet Russia.
And appealed to establish friendship between America. The Soviet Union was strongly suspicious of this incident. done after April 1946, the Eastern bloc and western bloc began to openly express thier differences. on 10 February 1947, US Secretary of state Dean Aitchison expansionist. Only then did Tuman stop the soviet expansion in the name of opposition to communism The theory and martial scheme originated.
On October 25, 1947, Russia responded to the Marshall plan on 9 of Europe. Cominforms of communist countries were established and the Molotov Plan was announced. Now there is a fight over talk.
Truman Doctrine:-The United States violated all the rules of war in world war in March 1947 of Greece. interfered in the civil war. Justifying this intervention, American President Truman on March 12, 1947, American Addressing the congress, he clarified his stand and the civil wars being fought under the leadership of the Communists in Greece and Taki To suppress this, the principles which were proposed to give financial assistance to these countries, the same principle.
it is said. To justify the Touman theory, it was argued that to prevent the spread of communism combined states have the right to intervene anywhere.
Fulton Speach:- March 5, 1946, against the Soviet Union in the presence of US President Truman by Tish Prime Minister Churchill The Speech is called the ‘Fulton speech’. In Fulton’s speech, Churchill criticized the soviet Union in Ltc there is an iron cover from staining to Adriatic.
Soviet people, The Viet is under influence but under soviet control. so keep the lamp of freedom burning and An Anglo-American alliance is needed to protect.
Marshal Plan:- Na felt that communism spreads only when people are poor and afflicted. Financially it can be stopped by enriching. in 1947, US secretary of state Marshall coaxed Europe with billions of dollars.
Jana to compensate for the effects of war. He was of the view that by not having such help Those who have become financially weak will join the Soviet Union. This is called the Marshall Plan.
Molotov Plan:- In response to the American Marshall Plan, Soviet Foreign Minister Molotov planned that the countries of Eastern Europe. They should be revived financially by giving financial assistance. This was known as the Molotov scheme.
Iron Curtain:- Stalin established such a strict control in the Soviet Union that the entry of foreign news into the country or the country it was impossible for news to go out. This was called the iron cover by British Prime Minister Churchill.
The Emergence of Two Power Blocs
The United States and the Soviet Union were engaged in expanding their spheres of the world. world clear was divided into two groups.
Each state was adopting a path through treaties and agreements to protect itself stay connected with one superpower and avoid the influence of other superpower and its group countries. During the cold war, Europe was divided into two rival alliances. This picture shows this.
Arenas of the cold war
The scope of the cold war refers to an area where Opportunities for crises arise between countries. the war occurred or the possibility of war Made, but things did not increase to an extent.
Korea (1950-53), berlin (1958-62), Congo (1960), Cuba (1962), in cases like Vietnam (1965-75) and Afghanistan (1979-89), there was a face-to-face situation. Korea, Vietnam and There has also been a widespread loss of life in areas like Afghanistan, but the world has been spared from nuclear war and hostility is not worldwide.
was found in such critical times, non-Aligned countries have been able to reduce tensions and avoid direct war between the two states. Played an important role.
Founder of the non-Aligned Movement in mediation between North Korea and South Korea Indian Prime Minister Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru played a vital role. UN Secretary-General at the time of the congo crisis Played the role of a mediator.
Both the superpowers had realized that war was necessary to avoid it. Due to this understanding, He acted with restraint and responsibility in international affairs. still, Between the US and Soviet Union, The feeling of rivalry was not over. Both of them amassed weapons and continued to prepare for the war.
But the arsenal of arms on both sides also stopped the war. Both suspected that there could be war despite moderation is Either of the two sides could make a wrong inference about the other’s number of weapons. Both groups could have mistaken to understand the intention.
Apart from this, the question was what would happen if a nuclear accident happened? if a nuclear weapon goes off by mistake or if a soldier wields a weapon with the intention of waging war. will happen? How will a country victim of such an accident know that it is not an enemy conspiracy but an accident? Hence The United States and the Soviet Union collaborated to limit or eliminate some nuclear and other weapons. Decided to cooperate.
such an effort began in the 1960s and both groups limited arms control. signed treaties like nuclear test treaty and nuclear missile delimitation treaty. after this, The superpowers also held several rounds of talks for weapon delimitation and several treaties to check weapons.
The cold war’s timeline
- 1947: American President Truman’s theory about stopping communism.
- 1947-52: Marshall Plan American aid to the reconstruction of western Europe.
- 1948-49: Siege of Berlin by soviet Union and western by America and its allies withdrawal of the aid material given to Berlin from the Soviet Union by its planes.
- 1950-53: Korean war.
- 1954 France’s defeat at the hands of the Vietnamese by Dion Beyan Fu; sign the Geneva Accord; 17: parallel partition of Vietnam by line; Formation of SEATO.
- 1955: signed Baghdad Pact (later known as CENTO).
- 1961: US-sponsored ‘Bay of Pigs’ invasion of Cuba the construction of the Berlin wall.
- 1962:cuban Missile crisis.
- 1965:US intervention in the Dominican Republic (Latin American country).
- 1968: Soviet intervention in Czechoslovakia.
- 1972: US President Nixon Visits China.
- 1978-89: Vietnam’s intervention in Cambodia.
- 1979-89: soviet intervention in Afghanistan.
- 1985:Gorbachev becomes President of the Soviet Union; started the process of reforms.
- 1989: Berlin wall toppled; Demonstrations of people against governments in Eastern Europe.
- 1990: The unification of Germany.
- 1991: Disintegration of Soviet Union, End of the cold war.